In normal human beings the intake of food is converted in to a form of sugar which is called as glucose and the glucose is carried in the blood stream and reaches the cells of the body.
The cells keeps the sugar and convert it in to energy by using insulin and throughout these changes the sugar level in the blood is kept constant at normal levels. When the normal level goes up above normal, the condition is called diabetes.
The condition of high glucose level in the blood develops by inefficient use of insulin by the cells of liver, muscles and fat. As a result, the abnormal amount of glucose is maintained at blood for want of insulin or by inefficient use of insulin by the cells. Over the time, this condition damages all the systems of the body including nerves and blood vessels and leading to the complications such as kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, infection, nerve damage and damage to the extremities.
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes was formerly called as insulin dependent diabetes. In this type, the beta cells of the pancreas is affected by the immune system and it is damaged and hence the beta cells unable to produce insulin. This condition could be treated by insulin with necessary exercise and with proper food choices. Cholesterol and blood pressure should also be controlled while treating this disease of type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes:
In earlier days this form was called as non insulin dependent type of diabetes. This is most common among people. This disease appears at any stage of the life and it may appear in the younger ages in which the body does not able to use the insulin properly though there is enough availability of insulin. People who are obese and do not have necessary physical activity acquires this form of diabetes. The treatment includes taking medicine, exercise, maintaining the cholesterol and blood pressure at normal level with wise food choices.
Gestational form of diabetes is developed in the pregnant women during the later stage of pregnancy and it disappears after child birth and it is caused by want of insulin temporarily.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Many people have diabetes and they do not know it and many may not have any symptoms at all. But some have only mild symptoms and they ignore it since they do not know as them for symptoms for diabetes.
Here are few symptoms.
Increased hunger and thirst.
Increased urination during night.
Fatigue, weight loss and meeting difficulty in wound healing.
Testing for High Risk Group of People
Aged, overweight people, people with high blood pressure are coming under the high risk group for having diabetes. Testing the glucose level by oral glucose tolerance test will reveal normal blood glucose level people, pre-diabetic and diabetes group of people.
Pre-diabetes group of people would have a slight elevation of blood glucose level but less than the levels of diabetes. But, however, this condition is an indication for the people to become diabetic.
High Risk Factors
Having diabetic parents, brothers and sisters.
Having high blood pressure
Having high cholesterol level.
Impaired glucose tolerance found in testing by oral glucose tolerance test.
Cardio vascular disease
Make your body to reach a reasonable body weight:
Over weight people usually unable to use the insulin hormone properly. When insulin is not properly used over weight attributes to high blood pressure also and losing a small body weight will prevent you from developing diabetes type 2 disease. Even losing atleast 10 pounds will reduce the risk factor from getting the disease.
Over weight people should avoid crash diets. They should eat less and intake of fat in the diet to be reduced. Body mass index is the technique to measure the weight relative to height. It will indicate as how many pounds to be reduced by way of exercises and diet control.
Wise food choices:
Body weight, blood pressure and cholesterol could be controlled by changing the eating habits.
Increase the amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet and reduce the fat diets like meat and desserts. Reduce your fat intake to about 25 percent of your total calories. Sodium intake should be restricted to 3 grms or a table spoon per day.
Alcoholic drinks to be avoided or it should be given up immediately. Reduce the number of calories you have each day.
Regular practice of exercise will keep the body’s cholesterol level and blood pressure at normal. This helps the body to use insulin properly. Even if you are inactive, plan your self to get started to be active by having master plan for daily exercises.
You can increase your physical activities by walking, running, cycling and climbing up through stairs.
Take medicines regularly to control blood pressure and cholesterol level without fail. Ask your doctor whether you should take any medicines to prevent type 2 diabetes.