Cancer cells, even when widely disseminated, may retain the physical and biological characteristics of their tissue of origin. Thus, a pathologist can often determine the site of origin of metastatic tumors by microscopic examination of the cancerous tissue.
Identification of tumors of the endocrine glands, for example, is simplified because they may produce excessive amounts of the hormone that is produced by the parent tissue. Such tumors may also respond to administration of the hormones that normally control that tissue.
In general, the less closely a cancer resembles its tissue of origin, the more malignant and rapidly invasive it tends to be; however, the rate of growth of a cancer depends not only on cellular type and the degree of differentiation from the tissue of origin, but also on various host factors.
A characteristic of malignancy is tumor-cell heterogeneity. Because of the abnormalities of proliferation in tumor cells, they are more susceptible to mutation. With time, a tumor tends to become less differentiated and to grow more rapidly. It may also develop increased resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Causes of Cancer
There are many causes of cancer; the truth is that all kind of cancer is actually preventable.
Infection: There is a growing evidence that some infections are linked to certain cancers. In particular, infections have been found to be involved in cancers of the stomach and liver and crevice which kills thousand of people around the world daily, and in Kaposi’s sarcoma rare cancer which occurs in AIDS Patient.
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori may help to cause many cases of stomach cancer. Studies have shown that people infected with the bacterium are four times more likely to develop this cancer. In the Nigeria, it has been estimated to help cause as many as half of the approximately 8,000 stomach cancers that occur each year.
Cervical cancer is linked to sexually transmitted types of human papilloma virus HPV-16 and HPV-18. HPV infection is quite common and most women who are infected do not develop cervical cancer. However, it does seem that HPV infection is an extremely important step in the development of the disease often occurring several years before the appearance of cancer.
People who are carriers of some types of viruses are greatly increased risk of cancer. Childhood infection may be particularly important. When viruses like hepatitis B (which contributes to liver cancer) are contracted at birth or during early childhood, the patient becomes a carrier. In countries like China, where childhood infection with hepatitis B is endemic, rates of liver cancer in adults are high 40 to 50 per cent of liver cancer in the world occurs in China.
Research is under way to see if vaccinating Chinese children against hepatitis B will prevent them from developing liver cancer in later life.
Smoking: Smoking is one of the biggest causes of premature death in the western world. Not only does it cause over one third of cancers, but it also causes heart disease and major forms of lung disease, such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Smoking has already killed 60 million people worldwide since 1950 and is likely to kill half a billion of those alive today unless current habits are changed. In Nigeria, over 40,00 people die every year from smoking. Twenty one thousand of these deaths are from cancer, mostly of the lung.
Smoking causes 90 percent of lung cancers. It can also cause cancer in a number of other parts of the body, including the mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal pelvis, bladder and cervix. There can be no doubt that giving up smoking brings down the risk. If a person manages to give up smoking brings down the risk.
If a person manages to give up smoking before developing cancer or some other serious disease, most of the risk of dying from smoking-related diseases may be avoided. After ten years, the risk will be more than halfway towards that of someone who never smoked.
Chemicals: Certain occupations carry an increased risk of cancer because workers are exposed to hazardous substances such as chemicals, asbestos, or radiation. It is therefore very important for work safety procedures to be put in place, to provide as much protection for workers as possible, an for workers to follow the guidelines.
Diet: Diet is probably linked to about 30 to 35 percent of cancers. Many researchers believe that it plays a part in many of the most common cancers, such as those of the breast and bowel. If we feed on processed food most of the time, we definitely end up depositing toxic waste in the body as our body will definitely be unable to get rid of most of these waste.
They end up clouding the cells and preventing free flow of nutrient and oxygen to the affected cells, cells that cannot received oxygen soon lost memory of it genetic information and become malignant forming cancer. At the moment, evidence suggests a protective role for fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre and certain vitamins.
Other factors such as high fat or excessive meat diet, are thought to increase risk. For instance, many researchers think that an increased intake of fresh fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of stomach cancer. People who eat moderate amounts of fruit, such as one piece of fruit per day, have a substantially lower risk of developing this cancer.
Reducing calories from fat to 20 percent of the diet, cutting down on red meat, increasing dietary fibre (such as wholemeal bread, fruits and vegetables), and eating protective foods (foods that contain vitamins C and A, as well as vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts) all provide benefits.
Foods (mainly vegetables) containing beta-carotene, an antioxidant that is converted to vitamin A in the body, are thought to provide some protection against the cell changes that may lead to cancer. Moderation in eating salt-cured, smoked and nitrite-cured foods in the consumption of alcohol is also advised.
Apart from eating a healthy diet, keeping weight down is also an important measure in cutting cancer risk. Obesity increases the risk of cancer of the breast, bowel, uterus, and prostrate. Some recent studies have shown that moderate exercise may also play a part in preventing cancer as well as maintaining general good health.
Over consumption of alcohol is responsible for 3 percent of cancer deaths. Cancers of the mouth, throat and oesophagus are linked to this, with those most at risk being people who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes.
Shallow breathing: Shallow definitely can lead to cancer development we already know that if cell are deprived of oxygen for some time, it brain cell are destroyed thus making it lose it genetic information and become malignant. Shallow breathing prevents adequate supplying of oxygen to all parts of the body it also lead to excess carbon in the body which on the long run hinders the function of the kidney and can even lead to kidney problem.
Symptoms of Cancer
Some symptoms of cancer are change in bowel or bladder habits, a sore throat that does not heal, unusual bleeding or discharge, thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere, indigestion or difficulty in swallowing, obvious change in a wart or mole, nagging cough or hoarseness etc.
We have now seen how cancer develop and the numerous factor that can lead to if formation. The good news remain that all forms of cancer can be prevented, before moving on to the coconut solution for cancer, let see some of the precautions that can prevent cancer. If the following are observed, we can prevent cancer.
Prevention of Cancer
– Observe safety rules in jobs where exposure to chemicals, radiation, and other hazards increases risk.
– Do not smoke.
– Eat natural and healthy foods.
– Avoid sunburn.
– Avoid drinking alcohol
– Avoid processed vegetable oil as it is known to depress the immune system and create free radicals that promote cancer formation.
– Practice deep breathing.
– Maintain a positive mental attitude.
– Form the habit of consuming fruits and vegetable juices daily.